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Full text of "Solar project description for A-Frame Industries' single family residence, Kaneohe, Hawaii"

E i.arQot-.A'R/ioio-i-? /so 



SOLAR/1010-79/50 

Solar Project 
Description 




A-FRAME INDUSTRIES' 

SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCE 

Kaneohe, Hawaii 

July 27, 1 979 




U.S. Department of Energy 

National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process 
disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. 



Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of 
Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161. 



Price: Paper Copy $4.50 
Microfiche $3.00 



SOLAR/1010-79/50 

Distribution Category UC-59 



SOLAR PROJECT DESCRIPTION 

FOR 

A-FRAME INDUSTRIES' 

SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCE - KANEOHE, HAWAII 



Prepared for the 
Department of Housing and Urban Development 

Under Contract Number 
H-2372 

David Moore 
Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program Manager 

By 

The Boeing Company 

David Beers 

Program Manager 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Poge 

I. FOREWORD I 

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 

III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION 4 

IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 6 

A. General Overview 6 

B. Collector Subsystem 8 

C. Storage Subsystem 16 

D. Energy-to-Load Subsystem 18 

E. Auxiliary Subsystem 20 

F. Modes of Operation 22 

V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION 25 

A. The National Solar Data Network 26 

B. On-Site Instrumentation 28 

VI. COST DATA 30 

VII. APPENDIX 32 

A. Glossary 

B. Legend for Solar System Schematics 37 



n 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure Title Page 

IV-A-I General Overview 6 

IV-B-I Collector Subsystem 8 

IV-B-2 Solar Collector 12 

IV-C- 1 Storage Subsystem 16 

IV-D- 1 Energy-to-Load Subsystem 18 

IV-E- 1 Auxiliary Subsystem 20 

I V-F- 1 Controls Diagram 22 

V-A-l The National Solar Data Network 26 

V-A-2 Data Flow Path for the National Solar Data Network 27 

V-B- 1 Sensor and Control Diagram 29 



m 



NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS 

Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are numbered under a 
specific format. For example, this report for A-Frame Industries single family 
residence, HUD Grant No. H-2598, is designated as SOLAR/10 1 0-78/50. The 
elements of this designation are explained in the following illustration: 



Prepared for the 
National Solar -^ 

Data Program 



Demonstration Site -^ 
Number 



SOLAR/101 0-78/50 



Report Type 
■► Designation 



-► Year 



Demonstration Site Number: Each project has its own discrete number - 1000 
through 1999 for residential sites and 2000 through 2999 for commercial sites. 

Report Type Designation: 

This number identifies the type of report, e.g., 



o 
o 



Monthly Performance Reports — designated by the numbers 01 

(for January) through 12 (for December); 

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations — designated by 

the number 14; 

Solar Project Descriptions — designated by the number 50; 

Solar Project Cost Reports — designated by the number 60. 



These reports are disseminated through the U.S. Department of Energy, Technical 
Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. 



IV 



I. FOREWORD 

The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the 
Department of Energy (DOE) as mandated by the Solar Heating and Cooling 
Demonstration Act of 1974. The Department of Housing & Urban Development is 
responsible to DOE for the Solar Residential Demonstration Program. The overall 
goal of the Federal Demonstration Program is to assist in the establishment of a 
viable solar industry and to achieve a substantial reduction in fossil fuel use 
through widespread use of solar heating and cooling applications. An analysis and 
synthesis of the information gathered through this program will be disseminated in 
site-specific reports and summary documents as products of the National Solar 
Data Program. These reports will cover topics such as: 

o Solar Project Description. 

o Operational Experience. 

o System Performance Evaluation. 

o Monthly Performance Reports. 

Information contained herein for this Solar Project Description report has been 
extracted from data collected during site visits and from reference documents such 
as the project proposal, designer specifications, grantee submittals, manufacturer 
literature, photographs, specific "as-built" data and other project documentation 
available. The remaining reports in this series will utilize the Solar Project 
Description for supporting reference. 



II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

The following are the major solar energy descriptors: 

o Collector Type — Liquid flat plate, tube and plate 

o Freeze Protection -- None required 

o Application — Domestic hot water 

o Storage ~ Preheated water 

o New/Retrofit — New 

o Performance Evaluation Instrumentation ~ Yes 

The A-Frame Industries site located in Kaneohe, Hawaii and is a single family 
residence containing a solar energy system designed to provide domestic hot water 
heating. It is an open system, utilizing city water pressure to overcome the 
pressure head of the DHW tank and solar collector subsystem. The system uses 
city water as the common heat transfer medium, and contains no energy storage 
tank or DHW tank heat exchanger loop. Therefore, the total operating energy is in 
the energy collection and storage subsystem (ECSS). 

The collector consists of an array of four flat plate collectors with a gross area of 
76.6 square feet. The collectors face 10 degrees east of south at an angle of 21 
degrees from the horizontal. The heat transfer medium is potable water, which is 
stored in a 120 gallon water heater storage tank and supplied, on demand, to the 
domestic hot water supply. Auxiliary heat is supplied by a 4 kilowatt electrical 
heating element. The collector loop pump is activated when the collector 
temperature exceeds the storage temperature by 5° F. The pump is stopped when 
this temperature difference becomes less than 2 F. The hot water service design 
temperature is 140° F. No maximum temperature control or freeze protection is 
provided. 



The solar energy system was designed by Miromit Ashkelon of Tel Aviv, Israel and 
installed by their distributon in Hawaii, Sunsource Pacific, Inc. 



The house has been fully instrumented for performance evaluation of the solar 
system since February 1978 and the compiled data is integrated into the National 
Solar Data Network. 

Original cost estimates for provisioning and installation of the solar system are 
given in Section VI of this report. The final solar system, however, cost and of its 
instrumentation are not included. 






III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION 
Site Description 

o Latitude - 21° N 

o Longitude- 158° 

o Elevation - 500 feet 

o Annual degree days (65° F base) 

o Heating - 

o Data location - Kaneohe, Hawaii 

o Data reference - 1 977 ASHRAE Handbook 
o Average horizontal insolation 

o January - 1400 Btu/ft 2 /day 

o July- 1 675 Btu/f t 2 /day 

o Data location - Kaneohe, Hawaii 

o Data reference - ASHRAE Fundamental Handbook 
o Shading - None 
Building Description 
o Occupancy 

o Family of two 

o Three bedroom, living room, kitchen, laundry room, 
covered lanai, two bathrooms, detatched garage 

o Solar system provides - Hot water preheating 

o Height - One story 

o Front side view - Due south 

o Conditioned floor area - 1,232 ft^ 

o Roof slope at collector - 13° pitch angle 

o Special features - Northern end of house is on stilts 



Structure 

o Walls (Solar conditioned space) 

o Frame Wood traming on wood posts set in concrete 

o Exterior finish - Plywood 

o Insulation - 

o Interior finish - Gypsum wallboard 

o Windows - 

Glazing - Single pane 

Less than 20 percent of exterior wall area 

o Doors 

Front door - Solid wood 

Rear door - Solid wood 

o Roof 

o Structural frame - Structural wood with I x 8 T&G 
cedar sheathing. 

o Exterior finish - Asphalt shingle 

o Interior finish - Living room & kitchen - open beam, 
all others I x 2 kiln dried wood 

Mechanical System 

o Domestic Hot Water 

o Daily water demand - 41.4 gallons per day 

o Solar - Open system pumping water through solar 
collectors into storage tank 

o Auxiliary - 120 gallon electric water heaters 

Type - 4 kw electrical heating element 

Manufacturer - American Appliance 



IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 



A. General Overview 



COLLCCIO* 
COt. -I 




MW 
'SUPPLY 



CW 
"SUPPUT 



L, COLLECTOR 



SUBSYSTEM 






STORAGE 






LOAD 



SUBSYSTEM ^T SUBSYSTEM 



l> 



Figure IV-A-I. General Overview 



The domestic hot water heating demonstration system used at the A-Frame 
Industries Grant-(Grant No. H-2598) is represented in Figure IV-A-I. The Energy 
Collection and Storage Subsystem (ECSS) is composed of the collector array, the 
primary storage medium, the transport loops between these, and other components 
in the system designed which are necessary to mechanize the collector and storage 
equipment. The system includes a four kilowatt electrical, strip type, immersion 
heating element in the 120 gallon storage tank as an auxiliary hot water supply 
system. 



Subsequent sections describe the collector, storage, storage-to-load, and auxiliary 
energy subsystems. Specific details of the operating modes are described in the 
final section. Figure IV-A-I is a system schematic diagram. Appendix A presents 
a glossary. 



B. Collector Subsystem (See Figure IV-B-I) 



COLLI CTOA 
COL -I 




MMW 



'-V-V.V.V.'//' 



<f 



COLLECTOR « l„ 

SUBSYSTEM ~~*r~ 



_Sw2_ 



P. 



Figure IV-B-I. Collector Subsystem 



General Description 

The 76.6 ft^ collector array is mounted at a 21° slope to the horizontal on a sloped 
portion of the sourtherly part of the roof. The collector strong back structure is 
secured by thru-bolting through the roof and roof rafting. The four collector 
panels, weighing 169 pounds per panel, empty were assembled at the site. 



8 



Collector (COL- 1) (See Figure IV-B-2) 

o Manufacturer - Miromit Ashkelon 

o Model Name/Number - 299481-4 

o Type - Liquid flat plate, tube and plate 

o Location - Roof 

o Orientation - 10° east of south 

o Tilt angle - 21° from the horizontal 

o Number of collector panels - 4 

o Array configuration - Four panels side by side 

o Collector enclosure 

o Total gross area of array - 72 square feet 

o Net aperture area - 68 square feet 

o Weight per panel, empty - 169 pounds 

o Weight per panel, full - 179 pounds 

o Weight of filled array and support structure - 900 pounds 

o Panel length - 73 inches 

o Panel width - 37.8 inches 

o Frame depth - 3.5 inches 

o Standoff height - 8 inch 
o Cover plate 

o Number of cover plates - One 

o Manufacturer - ASG Industries 

o Product Name/Number - Sundex A 

o Material - Tempered glass, water white 

o Thickness - 0.156 inches 

o Coating - None 



Optical properties 


(so 


ar region) 


Transmittance 




91% 


Reflectance 




8% 


Emittance 




1% 



o Edge or surface treatment, other than coating - Mechanical 
ground 

o Coating on cover plate material - None 

Absorber 

o Manufacturer - Miromit Ashkelon 

o Model Name/Number - 100 

o Material - Galvanized steel 

o Coating 

Material - Tabor selective black 

Application - Vacuum deposited 

Absorptance, solar region - 92% 

Reflectance, solar region - 8% 

Emittance - 10% 
Heat transfer fluid passages 

o Location of fluid passages - Beneath absorber 
o Fluid passage materials - IPS galvanized steel 
o Fluid passage wall thickness - .094 inches 
o Fluid passage bond to substrate - Mechanical rolled bond 
o Protective costing inside fluid passage - Galvanized 
Insulation 
o Layer one and layer two, sides 

Manufacturer - Celotex 

Material - Celotex board 

Thermal resistance - R-3 

10 



o Layer one - back 

Material - Mineral wool 
Thermal resistance - R-13 
o Gaskets and sealants 

o Inner cover - GE 1200 silicone sealant 

o Frame joint - Welded 

o Backing plate - Mechanical crimp 
o Frame 

o Manufacturer - Miromit Ashkelon 

o Product Name/Number - Miromit 100 24 gage galvanized steel 

o Material - 24 gage galvanized steel 

o Protective coating - Galvanized and painted 

o Number of structure attach points per module to 
building - 4 

o Collector performance 

o Method of evaluation - ASHRAE (t.-t )L 

i a t 

o y intercept - .73° F hr ft 2 /Btu 

o Slope - 0.92 

o Test flow rate - 15.0 pounds per hour 
Liquid Circulation Loop No. I (COL- 1 to DHW-I) 

o Design maximum operating temperature - 140° F 
o Heating design liquid flow 

o Maximum - 0.8 gal/min 
o Heat transfer medium 

o Material - Water 100% of total volume 

o Specific heat - 1 .00 Btu/lb °F 

o Density - 63 lb/ft 3 




Figure IV-B-2. Solar Collector 



o Heat capacity - 62.4 Btu/ft 3 °F 

o Boiling point - 212° F 

o Freezing point - 32 F 

o Maximum recommended use temperature - 1 60° F 

o Toxicity - Potable 

o Chemical feeder to maintain pH factor - None 

o Inhibitor - No 

Piping 

o Location - Above grade 

o Exterior finish - SPANDEX, self vulcanized 

o Insulation - Celular rubber 

o Rigid - Copper type L, hard 1/2 inch tube, soldered 

o Joint finish - Tape and mastic 

Circulator Pump (P-l) 

o Manufacturer - Grundfos 

o Model Name/Number - UP 25-42SE 

o Type - Centrifugal 

o Maximum operating conditions 

Static pressure - 150 psi 

Dynamic pressure - 6.1 psi 

Temperature - 210° F 
o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid - Stainless steel 316 
o Motor size - 0.05 hp, I 15 volts, I phase, 60 Hz 
o Maximum motor speed - 1 725 rpm 
o Drive - Direct 
o Speed - Single 



13 



o Circulating volume - Low head mode, 23.0 gal/min 

o Operating head (dynamic) - Low head mode, 6.06 psi 

o Distribution Valve (V- 1) 

o Manufacturer - Bell and Gossett 

o Model Name/Number - Bivco No. 150, 1/2 inch bronze, 
circuit setter balance 

o Function - Flow adjusting 

o Operation - Manual 

o Type - Plug 

o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid - Bronze 

o Maximum rated operating conditions 
Pressure - 1 25 psi 
Temperature - 250° F 
Control Mode Selector (CMS- 1) 

o Manufacturer - Hawthorne Industries 
o Model Name/Number - Fixflow 1503 
o Modes controlled 

o Collector to storage 

OFF when SN-01 is less than 4° F above SN-02 
o Sensors (SN- 1) and (SN-2) 

o Manufacturer - Hawthorne 

o Type - Thermostatic 

o Flow Control (FC-I) 

o Manufacturer - Bivco Valve 

o Product Name/Number - Lift Multi-valve 

o Type - Check valve 



14 



Flow Control (FC-3) 

o Manufacturer - Watts 

o Product Name/Number - No. 1 74A 

o Type - Pressure relief valve 



15 



C. Storage Subsystem (See Figure IV-C-I) 




rt 






STORAGE 




SUBSYSTEM 






a 



Figure IV-C-I. Storage Subsystem 



The storage tank is the domestic water heater (DHW-I) tank. 
Thermal Storage Unit (DHW-I) 

o Domestic water heater (DHW-I) 

o Manufacturer - American Appliance 



16 



o Model Name/Number - AMGI20 

o Total storage volume - 120 gallons 

o Auxiliary energy - Electricity 

o Manufacturers rating 

Tank volume - 120 gallons 
Energy input - 15360 Btu/hr 
Energy output - 1 5000 Btu/hr 
Maximum pressure - 300 psi 
Maximum temperataure - 1 70° F 
Design operating pressure - 1 50 psi 
Maximum recovery rate - 18 gal/hr 

Storage medium 

o Material - 100% water 

o Input temperature - 74° F (yearly average) 

o Output temperature (design) - 140° F 

Storage construction 

o External surface area - 250 sq. ft. 

o Thermal resistance insulation - R-1.6 

o Corrosion protection - Magnesium Anode 

o Heating stages - One 

Flow Control (FC-2) 

o Manufacturer - Watts 

o Product Name/Number - 1 00XL 

o Type - Pressure/Temperature relief valve 



17 



D. Energy To Load Subsystem (See Figure IV-D-I) 




x 



4 



FC-J 



a-£± 



£ 



% 



HW 
■SUPPLY 



CW 
"SUPPUf 



<§= 









LOAD J 



^SUBSYSTEM 



Figure IV-D-I. Energy-to-Load System 



The 31 individual DHW units are supplied with preheated water from a single 
circulating loop. This loop is designed to take advantage of the building elevations 
so that when water is drawn from any unit, an undirectional flow is established 
which will continue to circulate till demand ceases. Preheated water is thus drawn 
from storage and is available in the circulation loop. 



18 



Liquid Circulation Loop No. 2 (DHW-I to hot water supply) 
o Maximum design operating temperature - 160° F 
o Provision for expansion - Open system 
o Heat transfer medium 

o Medium - 100% water 

o Specific heat - 1.00 Btu/lb °F 

o Boiling point -212° F 

o Freezing point - 32° F 

o Maximum recommended use temperature - 210° F 

o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH factor - 7.0 

o Piping 

o Rigid - Hard copper, type K 
o Location - Above grade 



19 



E. Auxiliary Subsystems (See Figure IV-E-I) 




n 









LOAD J 
5* 



SUBSYSTEM^ i 



Figure IV-E-I. Auxiliary-to-Load Subsystem 



Domestic Water Heater (DHW-I) 

o Domestic water heater (DHW-I) 

o Manufacturer - American Appliance 

o Model Name/Number - AMGI20 
o Total storage volume - 120 gallons 

o Auxiliary energy - Electricity 



20 



o Manufacturers rating 

Tank volume - 120 gallons 
Energy input - 1 5360 Btu/hr 
Energy output - 1 5000 Btu/hr 
Maximum pressure - 300 psi 
Maximum temperataure - 1 70° F 
Design operating pressure - 150 psi 
Maximum recovery rate - 18 gal/hr 

Storage medium 

o Material - 100% water 

o Input temperature - 74 F (yearly average) 

o Output temperature (design) - 140° F 

Storage construction 

o External surface area - 250 sq. ft. 

o Thermal resistance insulation - R-16 

o Corrosion protection - Magnesium Anode 

o Heating stages - One 

o Interior lining - Glass 

o Insulation - Fiberglass 

o Location - Garage 

o Toxicity - Potable 



21 



Modes of Operation (See Figure (V-F-l) 



COlLCCTOA 
CO«.-l 




U COLLECTOR 



SUBSYSTEM 






STORAGE 






SUBSYSTEM "r SUBSYSTEM 



LOAD _J 



Figure IV-F-I. Controls Diagram 

The A-Frame Industries' "Solar Home" is designed to utilize an open solar hot water 
heating system, see figure IV-F-I. The home is built with a North-South 
orientation providing an optimum Southern exposure for its four Miromit Ashkelon 
heat collecting panels. The four panels are used in conjunction with a 120 gallon 
heater/storage combination tank. It is insulated with 3 inches of urethane foam 
and surrounded by a steel jacket. The heating element controls are protected by 
the urethane. The lower -element in the heater has been disconnected, allowing 
only the upper element to operate. 



22 



The system itself is simple. It has a sensor located in the upper portion of the 
collector and one located at the bottom of the storage tank. The upper sensor is at 
the hottest part of the system and the lower sensor at the coldest. When the upper 
sensor senses five degrees higher temperature than the lower sensor, the master 
control box automatically activates the pump. The pump circulates the water past 
the circuit setting balance valve which restricts the flow to get maximum 
efficiency and temperature rise. The water passes through to the bottom portion 
of the collectors, rises through and out the top. Then it returns down the pipe, past 
a check valve and brought approximately half way into the storage tank, about two 
inches below the heating element. If the water coming off the collector into the 
storage is hotter than what the thermostatic setting is for the element, it will rise 
above the element and maintain the heat there. If it is colder than that 
temperature, it will fall to the bottom of the tank for recirculation. The system 
will circulate the water in the tank approximately 1-1/2 times per day. This 
permits maximum temperatures in storage for the amount of collector area used. 
The system automatically turns off when there is less than two degrees temp- 
erature differential. 



23 



System Operation Modes 

Mode I - Collector to storage 

The circulating heat transfer medium (water) is pumped through the collector 
maintaining water temperature in the storage at an average of 131° F. The 
collector loop pump is automatically activated when the collector temperature 
exceeds the storage temperature by 5 F. 

Mode 2 - Auxiliary Domestic Hot Water Heating 

If for any reason sufficient supply of hot water is not available through the 
collector, the auxiliary heating system, consisting of an electric heating element 
controlled by a temperature sensor, will be automatically activated. The con- 
trolling sensor turns on the heating element whenever the water temperature in the 
heater/storage tank drops below 1 20 F. 



24 



V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION 

A. The National Solar Data Network 

The National Solar Data Network (see figure V-A-l) has been developed for the 
Department of Energy to process data collected from specific residential demon- 
stration sites which were selected for thermal performance evaluation. The data 
flow in the Network includes monthly and seasonal system performance reports 
describing the thermal performance of the solar energy system and subsystems. 

The performance evaluation instrumentation at each selected demonstration site is 
part of a comprehensive data collection system that allows for valid analyses of 
the solar system performance. Collected data are both applicable and practical in 
calculating thermal performance factors that describe the behavior of the solar 
system (see NBSIR 76-1 137), National Bureau of Standards. Additional instrumen- 
tation may also be included as a result of site-specific requirements. Typically, 
the instrumentation includes sensors that monitor the following: 

o Total insolation in the plane of the collector array 

o Ambient temperature 

o Collector subsystem flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage inlet flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage outlet flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage temperature 

o Storage-to-load subsystem flow rate and temperatures 

o Auxiliary fuel flow rates 

Site data are recorded sutomatically at prescribed intervals by the Site Data 
Acquisition System (SDAS). The recorded data are transmitted daily to the 
Communications Processor in the Central Data Processing System (CDPS). The 
communications link between every SDAS and the CDPS consists of voice-grade 
telephone lines and telephone data couplers. A reading is transmitted from the 
SDAS internal timer with every data sample to ensure that the data are time- 
tagged correctly. 



25 




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27 



The Communications Processor scans the receiving data to identify any apparent 
transmission errors and verifies correct site contact by checking the address code 
transmitted by the SDAS. Data is stored temporarily in the Communications 
Processor and processed by the Host Computer. The processing includes measure- 
ment checking to ensure that the data are reasonable; that is, that they are not 
beyond the known instrument limits and that they are not erratic. Data which 
appear questionable are discarded and are not used in the solar system preformance 
analyses. 

Appropriate equations were formulated and programmed to define desired perform- 
ance factors for the solar energy systems at each selected demonstration site. A 
performance factor is a number that describes either the efficiency or the quantity 
of energy lost, gained, or converted by a solar energy system or by a component. 
All vaid data are processed using these performance factor equations to generate 
hourly performance factors. Hourly performance factors are integrated into daily 
and monthly performance factors. These hourly, daily, and monthly performance 
factors are stored in data files in the CDPS. These data files also include 
measurement data, expressed in engineering units; numerical and textual site 
identification; and specific site data used in generating the performance factors. 

B. On-Site Instrumentation 

The on-site instrumentation includes sensors to monitor the various parameters of 
the solar energy system, a junction box, and a Site Data Acquisition System that 
stores and transmits data to the Host Computer (see figure V-A-l and V-A-2). 
Specific information for temperature, flow, power and miscellaneous sensors are 
presented in tabular form. Sensor locations are shown in figure V-B-l. 



28 



T100 




T35 



HOT WATER 
SERVICE 



EP100 



12-GAL 

WATER 

HEATER/ 

STORAGE 

TANK 



W300 



T300 



^ 



.COLD WATER 
INLET 



EP300 



Figure V-B-l. Sensor Location Schematic 



29 



VI. COST DATA 

A. General 

The following cost data depicts only solar energy portion of the construction tests.. 
Costs of test instrumentation is not encluded since it is not part of the 
construction effort. 

B. Construction Grant Funds 



Solar Sub-System 





Percent 

of total 


Collectors 


$1,600(55.2) 


Energy Storage 


500(17.4) 


Distribution & Controls 


300(10.4) 


Installation 


500(17.2) 


Others * 




Total 


$2,900(100%) 



Applicants Reguest Construction Grant 



50 



$2,950 



C. Construction Period: April 15, 1977 through May 25, 1977 



* Miscellaneous hardward 



30 



SENSOR 



DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENT 



MODEL NO. 






1001 

TOO I 

EPI00 

WIOO 

TIOO 

TI50 

TIOI 

TI5I 

T300 

T350 

W300 

EP300 



Insolation, total 
Temperature, ambient 
Power, control box and pump 
Flow, collector return 
Temperature, return to collector 
Temperature, collector outlet 
Temperature, solar to hot water tank 
Temperature, hot water tank to collector 
Temperature, cold water inlet 
Temperature, hot water outlet 
Flow, totalizer 
Power, DHW heater 



Eppley PSP 

S53P-I00 

PC5-I 

FloScan 300-3 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

S57P-I00 

S53P-I00 

Hersey 430 

PC5-29 



31 



VII. APPENDIX 
A. Glossary 

ABSORBER PLATE - The surface in a flat plate collector that absorbs incident 
solar radiation and transfers the absorbed energy to a heat transfer fluid. 
ABSORPTANCE - The ratio of absorbed radiation by a surface to the total incident 
radiation on that surface. 

ABSORPTION SUBSYSTEM - The mechanical equipment that conditions indoor air 
by an absorption process. 

ACTIVE SOLAR SYSTEM - An integrated solar energy system, consisting of 
collector, storage, solar energy-to-load subsystems, that can condition indoor air or 
preheat domestic hot water in a controlled manner. 

AIR-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM - A solar energy system in which air is 
the heat transfer fluid. 

AIR CONDITIONING - The process of treating indoor air by controlling the 
temperature, humidity, and distribution to specified comfort settings as set by the 
occupants in the conditioned space. 

AMBIENT AIR - A term for outdoor air, and may be brought into a building to be 
conditioned or circulated. 

ANTI-FREEZE FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM - A freeze protection system that 
uses additives or solutions to the heat transfer medium, which depresses its 
freezing point sufficiently to prevent possible water freeze in the solar collectors 
and the exterior piping. 

AUXILIARY ENERGY SUBSYSTEM - The equipment, utilizing conventional energy 
sources, used to supplement the output provided by a solar energy system and used 
to provide a full backup system when the solar system is inoperable. 
BACKFLOW - The reversal of flow in a distribution system. 
BACKFLOW PREVENTOR - A device or means to stop backf low. 
BEAM RADIATION - Solar radiation which is not scattered and may be concen- 
trated. 

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu) - A unit of energy that is required to heat one 
pound of water from 59 F to 60 F. 

BUILDING ENVELOPE - The exterior surface of a building that encloses the 
conditioned space. 



32 



CLIMATE - The prevailing or average weather conditions of a specific geographic 

region as described by temperature and other meteorological data. 

COLLECTOR MANIFOLD - The piping that connects the absorber tubes in a 

collector plate. 

COLLECTOR PLATE - A term used for an absorber plate. 

COLLECTOR SUBSYSTEM - The assembly that absorbes solar radiation and 

transfers the absorbed thermal energy to a heat transfer fluid. 

COMBINED COLLECTORS - An assembly that both collects solar radiation and 

stores the thermal energy in the same unit. 

CONCENTRATING SOLAR COLLECTOR - A solar collector which focuses beam 

radiation onto an absorber in order to obtain higher energy fluxes than can 

normally be achieved by flat plate solar collectors. 

CONCENTRATOR - A reflective surface or refracting lens used in directing 

insolation onto an absorber. 

CONDITIONED SPACE - The space in a building where the air is conditioned by 

heating or cooling. 

CONTROL SUBSYSTEM - The assembly of electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic 

actuated sensing devices used in regulating the solar energy system and the 

auxiliary energy subsystems. 

COOLING TOWER - A heat exchanger that transfers waste heat from an 

absorption cooling system to ambient air. 

DIFFUSE RADIATION - Solar radiation which is scattered by air molecules, dust, 

or other substances suspended in the air. 

DRAIN-DOWN FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM - A freeze protection system that 

prevents potential water freeze-up within the collector and exterior piping by 

automatically draining and replacing the water with a non-freezing medium such as 

air, nitrogen, etc. 

DUCT HEATING COIL - A liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the duct distribution 

system used to heat air by passing a hot fluid through a coil in the air system. 

EQUIVALENT FULL LOAD COOLING HOURS - The seasonal cooling load for a 

building described as the total number of hours that the air conditioning system 

will operate under full load conditions to meet the required cooling load. 

EMITTANCE - The ratio of energy radiated by a body to the energy radiated by a 

black body at the same temperature. 

EXPANSION TANK - A tank which will permit water to expand whenever it is 

heated to prevent excessive pressures on the other system components. 



33 



FIXED COLLECTOR - A solar collector that is permanently oriented towards the 

sun and cannot track the sun nor be adjusted for seasonal variations. 

FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR - A basic heat collection device used in solar heating 

systems, which consists of an absorber plate, with insulated bottom and sides, and 

covered by one or more transparent covers. There are no concentrators or focusing 

aids in a flat plate collector. 

FOCUSING COLLECTOR - A solar collector using a parabolic mirror, fresnel lens, 

or other type of focusing device to concentrate solar radiation onto an absorber. 

FRESNEL COLLECTOR - A concentrating solar collector which uses a fresnel lens 

to focus beam radiation onto an absorber. 

GLAZING - The transparent cover(s) on a solar collector used to reduce the energy 

losses from the top of the collector. 

HEAT TRANSFER FLUID - The fluid that transfers solar energy from the solar 

collector to the storage subsystem or to the load. 

INCIDENCE ANGLE - The angle in which the insolation strikes a surface and the 

normal for that surface. 

INSOLATION - The total amount of solar radiation on a surface in a given unit of 

time. 

LAMINATED GLASS - A glazing consisting of multiple glass sheets bonded 

together by intervening layer or layers of plastic. 

LANGLEY - The standard unit of insolation defined as I langley = I cal/cm , (I 

Langley = 3.69 Btu/ft 2 ). 

LIQUID-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM - A solar energy system in which 

either water or an antifreeze solution is the heat transfer fluid. 

LOAD - The total space conditioning or domestic water heating requirements that 

are supplied by both the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystem. 

NOCTURNAL RADIATION - The loss of thermal energy by the solar collectors to 

the sky at night. 

NO-FLOW CONDITION - The condition obtained when the heat transfer fluid is not 

flowing through the collector array due to a shutdown or a malfunction. 

OPAQUE - A surface that is not transparent, thus solar radiation is either 

reflected or absorbed. 

OUTGASSING - The emission of gases by materials and components, usually during 

exposure to elevated temperature, or reduced pressure. 



34 



PACKAGE AIR-CONDITIONING UNIT - A factory-made assembly consisting of an 
indoor coil, a compressor, an outdoor coil, and other components needed for space 
cooling operations. This unit may also include additional components to heat the 
condition space. 

PARABOLIC FOCUSING COLLECTOR - A concentrating collector which focuses 
beam radiation by a parabolic reflector. 

PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM - An integrated solar energy system that can provide for 
space heating needs without the use of any other energy source other than the sun. 
REFLECTANCE - The ratio of radiation reflected by a surface to the total 
incident radiation on the surface. 

REFLECTED RADIATION - Insolation which is reflected from a surface, such as 
the ground, and is incident on the solar collector. 

ROCK BED - A storage tank using uniform-sized rocks to store solar energy in air- 
based solar collector systems. 

SELECTIVE SURFACE - A surface which has a high absorptance for solar radiation 
and a low emittance for thermal radiation. 

SOLAR CONDITIONED SPACE - The area in a building that depends on solar 
energy to provide for a fraction of the heating and cooling needs. 
SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM - An integrated assembly of collector, storage, solar 
energy- to- load, and control subsystems required to convert solar energy into 
thermal energy for space heating requirements, as well as the addition of an 
auxiliary backup system. 

SOLAR RETROFIT - The addition of a sdlar energy system to an existing structure. 
STORAGE SUBSYSTEM - The components used to store solar energy so that the 
stored energy can be used for heating, cooling, or heating water during periods of 
low insolation. 

STRATIFICATION - The horizontal layering in a medium due to temperature 
differentials, commonly noticed in storage tanks filled with water. 
THERMOSTAT - A temperature sensing device which controls the heating and 
cooling systems for space conditioning or the hot water heater. 
TILT ANGLE FROM HORIZONTAL - Angle between the horizontal plane and the 
plane of collector. 

TON OF REFRIGERATION - A unit of refrigeration which is equivalent to 12,000 
Btu/hr. 

TRACKING COLLECTOR - A set of solar energy tracking collectors that auto- 
matically move in order to constantly aim towards the sun. 



35 



VAPOR BARRIER - A material which is used to reduce the transmission of water 

vapor. 

ZONE - A portion of a conditioned space which use a common control because of 

their similar heating and cooling requirements. 



36 



B. Legend for Solar System Schematics 



VALVES 



PIPING SPECIALITIES 




A— 



-fy 



■++ 



^ 



HI- 



GATE VALVE 
CHECK VALVE 
BALANCING VALVE 

GLOBE VALVE 
BALL VALVE 
PLUG VALVE 
BACKFLOW PREVENTER 
VACUUM BREAKER 
RELIEF OR SAFETY 
PRESSURE REDUCING 

ANGLE GATE VALVE 

ANGLE GLOVE VALVE 
CONTROL VALVE, 2 WAY 

CONTROL VALVE, 3 WAY 
BUTTERFLY VALVE 




4 WAY VALVE 
FITTINGS 



■o 



DIRECTION OF FLOW 

CAP 

REDUCER, CONCENTRIC 

REDUCER, ECCENTRIC 

TEE 

UNION 

FLANGED CONNECTION 

CONNECTION, BOTTOM 

CONNECTION, TOP 
ELBOW, TURNED UP 

ELBOW, TURNED DOWN 
TEE, OUTLET JJP 

TEE, OUTLET DOWN 



33- 



EJ 




_g fs 



J2 ps_ 



-Kyt 



5= 



i 



—v- 



cw>- 



AS 

EXPTK 
WS 
HED 



AUTOMATIC AIR VENT 
MANUAL AIR VENT 
ALIGNMENT GUIDE 

ANCHOR 
BALL JOINT 

EXPANSION JOINT 
EXPANSION LOOP 
FLEXIBLE CONNECTION 

FLOWMETER FITTING 
FLOW SWITCH 

PRESSURE SWITCH 

PRESSURE GAUGE 
PUMP 

PIPE SLOPE 

STRAINER 

STRAINER. W/BLOW OFF 

TRAP 

CONTROL SENSOR 

INSTRUMENTATION SENSOR 

THERMOMETER 
THERMOMETER WELL ONLY 

COLD WATER SUPPLY 



AIR SEPARATOR 
EXPANSION TANK 
WATER SOFTENER 
HOSE END DRAIN 



37 



UNIVERSITY OF FLOWC* 



\ 



1262 05392 7553 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

mil iiiii 111 urn mi 111 inn mi 111 mi iii! i 



3 1262 09052 5592